International traveling is not often as easy as booking a ticket online. Many popular travel destinations require a travel visa pre-registered. For some countries, it can be very easy, for others despite the bureaucratic process and can be much more frightening than getting your passport (better up-to-date or you go nowhere!)
A "visa" is temporary (or in some cases permanently) authorization to travel, live or work in a foreign country. As US citizens, we are often privileged to be able to travel to many countries without pre-registration and this is due to political relations with that country. You can check out https://www.newzealandetavisa.co.nz/ for acquiring more information about visa services.
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While you may not require pre-registered visa to enter Italy, the person standing next to you in line immigration possible. Similarly, many foreign nationals were allowed to enter the United States without visas, but many do not.
You can seek the expertise of Visa Accelerate Service. "Expeditors" as it is known to work with foreign embassies and consulates to secure the proper visa for their customers and maintain a complete database requirements.
This service can provide you with quick answers and detailed requirements quickly and easily. The major players in this market are very easy to understand web site where you simply select a country or countries you are traveling to and give a definitive answer.
If your goals do not require a visa, you can apply for a visa on your own or use Expeditor to secure a visa for you. Requirements tend to be quite simple – applications, schedules, photos and passport. Since the visa to be stamped or affixed to the passport, the embassy or consulate office requires your original passport.